Hemp, when cultivated, takes 108 – 120 days to fully mature. It can grow in a variety of temperatures and therefore can be cultivated in many places. It is grown by drilling its seeds into the ground with short intervals between them. It is cultivated towards the end of flowering to reduce the seed yield and increase the fiber yield. During cultivation, it is cut a short distance from the roots and left to dry in the farm first. The seeds and leaves comprising the upper portion are however removed. After drying, the stems undergo retting to separate the fiber from the stems. Retting is the process of soaking the stem so the fibers can soften. It is done either chemically, manually or through dew retting (leaving them out to ret using atmospheric moisture and dew).
After retting, decortication is done. This is the process of separating the fiber from the stem. In the past, it was done by hand, but there are now mechanical ways of doing it. Hemp is used for its various parts. The leaves and flowers can be used to make essential oil, and the seeds can be eaten ground, whole or compressed for hemp seed oil. The stems can be used to make biofuels of CBD oil. They can also be used to make bust fiber. The hemp core is called hemp hurd and is referred to as hemp shives when broken into pieces.